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Roman Baths at Ephesus

Baths of Varius

To the east of the Basilica are the ruins of the ancient Baths of Varius, dating from Roman times. Its construction is believed to have taken place during the second century A.D., while the mosaics in the 40 meters hall should be added in the fifth century.

These baths were built of cutted blocks of marble and had three sections: frigidarium (cold water), tepidarium (warm water) and caldarium (hot water). Excavations in this area have not been completed yet.

The Baths of Scholastica

They were built in the first century and restored in the fourth century by a rich Christian lady named Scholastica. To the left of the eastern entrance, you can see her headless statue.

It is thought that the original structure was three-storied, but the top two floors have collapsed. The bathrooms have two entrances, one from Curetes Street, which is the main entrance, and the other from the side street. Upon entering the first seen is the locker room (apodyterium) with ten cabins, then the cold room (cold plunge), with its pool, the warm room (tepidarium) to relax and finally the hot room (caldarium), with a very developed system of heating. The second floor had to be used for massages and scrubs.

They were used not only for hygiene but also to socialize and discuss the most important issues in the life of the city. In the Byzantine period remained the custom of the Roman baths and with the arrival of the Ottomans they reached their maximum expression and gained a new dimension.

The Baths of Constantine or Harbor Baths

At the entrance of the harbor, along the Arcadian Way, stood the Harbor Baths, built in 2 B.C., and also known as “The Baths of Constantine”, as they were repaired under the mandate of that emperor. This was one of the largest buildings in Ephesus, 160 meters wide, 170 long and 28 meters high.

The baths at the East Gymasium

Located north of the Magnesia Gate, this building was actually a complex of baths and a gymasium built approximately in the second century A.D. In the center, its structure had huge Roman baths, surrounded by vaulted corridors for physical exercises, games, talks and walks after the baths.

 

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